Crop planning based on rainfall variability for Bastar region of Chhattisgarh, India
ADIKANT PRADHAN*, T. CHANDRAKAR, S.K. NAG, A. DIXIT and S.C. MUKHERJEE
Analysis of long-term rainfall data (1986-2018) of Bastar region revealed decreasing trend in total quantum of annual rainfall with varying frequency and distribution. The quantity of winter and summer rains decreased drastically during 2008-18 as compared to earlier two decades (1986-96 and 1997-2007). SW monsoon rain of 2008-18 was more than past two decades, whereas NE monsoon rain changed much in quantity except during 1997-2007. During 1986-96, the pre-monsoon shower was received in April, but later two decades the shower was received in May, which supports for summer ploughing and dry aerobic seeding. The cropping period almost synchronized between 22-43 standard meteorological week (SMW) reaching 93.11 mm per week as maximum rainfall. As the probability of 20 mm rainfall decreased from 75 to 50%, the crop yield got reduced by 30%. The mid-land rice with a probability of 13.47 to 16.07 mm rain per week supported growth phase during 17-21SMW. Whereas, upland rice maturing in 90-100 days could avoid dry spells, if the rice is managed by conservation furrows at the time of sowing. The summer ploughing is preferred with more than 40 mm rain in single day during March to April for mitigating dry spells. On the other hand, preparatory tillage and sowing were performed together in support of ripening niger and horsegram under probability of 75, 50 and 25% rain through crop planning. Maize and small millets reduced yield significantly when rainfall reached 75% deficit, whereas 25% deficit rain did not affect the yields.